Golgi ApparatusA major site for molecule processing and sorting is the Golgi complex (also called Golgi apparatus). Vesicles from the rough endoplasmic reticulum fuse with membranes of the Golgi, carrying newly synthesized polypeptides. As these nascent proteins move through the membrane stacks of the Golgi, they can be glycosylated by the addition of sugars, and/or phosphorylated. These modifications help target the proteins for their final destinations, signalling for their transport to cytoplasmic locations such as cellular organelles, for the plasma membrane, or for release to the outside world. The Golgi is the site of complex carbohydrate synthesis--in plant cells the Golgi synthesizes the cell wall material, and in many animal cells the Golgi is the site of production of proteoglycans that will be secreted as part of the extracellular matrix.
Related Molecular Functions
Related Biological Processes